Month: November 2023

What is Reading Intervention?

Reading intervention

Reading intervention is one of several strategies used to help students who are struggling with reading. It’s typically provided through a school’s RTI/MTSS process.

Effective programs provide systematic and explicit instruction. They also provide formative assessments to track student progress. Research shows that most students who struggle with reading benefit from explicit and structured instruction.

What is Reading Intervention?

Reading intervention is typically part of a school’s federally mandated Response to Intervention (RTI) or Multi-Tiered System of Support (MTSS). Educators use RTI and MTSS to identify students who may need reading interventions. Educators then provide the necessary instruction to help those students become proficient readers.

Reading Intervention involves strategies and activities that are designed to supplement a student’s core reading program in a small group setting. Students engage in explicit and systematic instruction in five central content strands: Phonics, Letter-Sound Correspondences, Word Recognition and Spelling, Fluency, and Comprehension Strategies.

Some struggling readers are deficient in phonemic awareness, meaning they struggle to recognize individual sounds within words and/or their syllables. They also may lack sufficient practice and clear feedback in the phonics/letter-sound area. They may need a structured and explicit phonics curriculum such as the Wilson Language Training, Fundations, or Heggerty Phonics programs. They may also need to practice their reading out loud and receive frequent and clear feedback with a fluency program such as HELPS or the Wilson Reading System.

Identifying the Needs

Reading intervention can come in many forms, including a private tutor, a program run outside of class or changes to the way your teacher instructs the classroom. It focuses on the main aspects of reading to help students overcome their struggles. These include phonemic awareness, phonics, comprehension and vocabulary.

The best programs are systematic and explicit. They teach skills in a specific sequence and are taught daily or multiple times a week. They are also long enough to allow students to develop concepts and practice their new skills.

Reading interventions can help struggling students gain confidence in their abilities. This is important because when students feel defeated, they become less willing to keep trying. One way to boost their motivation is to ensure they experience small successes every day. This can be as simple as praising them for their effort, or breaking down a daunting assignment into parts so that it is easier to accomplish.

Planning the Intervention

The best reading intervention programs are systematic and explicit. They are taught daily or frequently, have a well-defined scope and sequence, and provide lots of practice with clear feedback. They also include strategies for teaching key skills. For example, a student who struggles with fluency may need help learning letter sounds while a child with comprehension problems will need to practice reading aloud and get lots of positive feedback.

The research suggests that a multicomponent intervention with instruction in decoding and comprehension has a positive effect on standardized foundational reading outcomes. However, this research is limited by its small sample size and the fact that most studies were conducted in schools as part of their RTI or MTSS framework.

In addition, we must not forget that reading should be fun. We should encourage students to read for pleasure, have them read aloud in class, and offer extra reading time as a reward or during transitions and breaks.

Implementing the Intervention

Using the information from assessments, teachers will reteach students skills that need strengthening. The order of these may vary for different students; for example, a student with problems in phonics and fluency might be taught the phonics skills first, and then later the fluency strategies.

Intervention strategies might also include the use of a word analysis approach where students learn how to break words down into their component parts. This can help students understand the meaning of prefixes, suffixes and roots, for example.

Reading interventions can be delivered in many ways including outside of class activities, tutoring or changes to classroom instruction. It is important to note, however, that these changes need to be implemented consistently and based on assessment data in order for them to work. This is called treatment integrity. (See Telzrow, 2008 for more information.) This includes addressing common barriers to implementation such as time, behavior management and student motivation. Students who require reading intervention should be provided with the best possible instruction to meet their needs.

How to Teach Children to Think for Theirself

children education

A child’s brain develops at an amazing pace in early childhood, and learning comes naturally to them. The early years are critical to a child’s future success in school and life.

Kids need to expand their knowledge by taking part in various activities at school. Sports, drama and inter-school competitions are just some of the things that help them develop their self-esteem and confidence.

Learning to think for themselves

Independent thinking is a key component to academic success. It helps children adapt to new situations and develop critical-thinking skills. It also allows them to bounce back from setbacks and be more self-sufficient in their lives. However, teaching a child to think for themselves may be harder than parents might expect.

Kids can learn to think for themselves at a very early age, but they need space to make mistakes and gain confidence in their decision-making skills. This is why it is important to teach kids to be curious and seek out more information about the world around them. It is also important to discuss and normalize the fact that people sometimes make bad choices, but that it is all about learning from those mistakes. Challenging them to navigate hypotheticals or potential scenarios can also help them work through their thought processes. By sharing meaningful information with children, adults can enhance their cognitive development in the zone of proximal development.

Learning to cooperate with others

Cooperation is the ability to work with others for a common goal. Children need to learn this skill for social-emotional and academic success. Research shows that cooperation develops along with communication and ways of thinking about others and the world.

Children can learn to cooperate by watching their parents and caregivers model this behaviour. Teachers can help by providing opportunities for children to work together on a task. Children are most likely to cooperate if they feel they have been heard and their needs met.

For toddlers, this could mean working on a large floor puzzle or sharing toys during free play. Similarly, older children may be encouraged to collaborate on a group project at school or with family members at home. During this time, teachers also teach the importance of taking turns and respecting each other’s feelings. This enables kids to be more successful at cooperating with others, especially as they become increasingly competent.

Learning to respect different cultures

In a society that is increasingly diverse, children need to know how to respect people from different cultures. It is important for them to understand that differences are normal and to respect others based on who they are, not their hair colour, skin colour, gender or if they have a physical disability. It is best to teach this from an early age by celebrating cultural celebrations, exposing them to diverse reading materials and movies, and leading by example.

It is also important to teach your children about their own culture and identity. Many families represent a mix of several different cultural identities and traditions. Learning about their own heritage can help them to be more open to learning about other cultures, traditions and customs. Children are heavily influenced by the adults around them and if they see their parents treating other people with respect regardless of skin colour or religion, then they will learn to do the same.

Learning to communicate with others

Whether it is through class discussions, dramatisations or oral exams, children will need good verbal communication skills. These skills will help them develop self-confidence and perform better in their studies. They will also need them to interact with new friends, family members and acquaintances.

Conversation skills are important for a child’s development, relationships and wellbeing. Children develop their ability to speak and listen to others through everyday experiences with a responsive, trusting adult and their interactions with other children in a safe environment. Role-modelling, prompting and guiding are all part of helping a child learn how to communicate.

Empathy is another essential component of children’s learning. When a child has empathy, they are able to think about what others may feel and consider their feelings when making decisions. This can be taught through play, reading stories and having discussions about character traits. Children who have empathy are able to cooperate and solve problems with their peers.

The Importance of Education Support

Education support workers make sure kids get the extra help and attention they need, that bells ring on time, and cafeterias are clean. They deserve recognition for their valuable contributions and protection from threats to public education, like layoffs and privatization.

An education support role can suit people who are passionate about educating younger generations but seek a work-life balance. These roles are available on a full-time or part-time basis and often have school terms and holidays.


Collaboration is the act of two or more people working together towards a common goal. It can be seen in business, science and even music. The Latin prefix com- means “with, or together” and it is often used with the verb laborare which also means to work or do something.

Education support professionals play a significant role in students’ lives. They interact with them daily and their relationships can influence their learning journey. This is particularly true when ESPs are recognized as important members of the school community and have opportunities for professional growth throughout their careers.

During the 2023-24 school year, NYSED has organized a number of Supplemental Support programs that schools in our CSI and ATSI model can participate in. Each program is unique based on its goals, but all are built upon collaboration. Participation is voluntary.


The staff of a school is made up of so much more than classroom teachers and principals. It also includes cafeteria workers, bus drivers, and custodial staff. These education support professionals (ESPs) help make learning possible for students.

ESPs often work with children who have special needs. This requires specialized training in assisting children with emotional and social skills. This can include resolving conflicts, developing self-concept and self-esteem, nutrition, positive guidance techniques and family resource management.

Effective communication with students and their families is critical to student success rates. This can be through both informal and formal channels. When communicating with parents, be mindful of non-verbal communications, such as pauses, body language and facial expressions. Avoid conversation dead-air fillers, such as “um” and “er”, as well as cliches like “basically,” “to be honest,” “at the end of the day” and “you know.” Listen to understand rather than to respond. This can help create a culture of trust and respect.

Interpersonal Skills

Often referred to as people skills, interpersonal skills are an important component of education. They help students develop a sense of community and foster personal growth and success. They are also necessary for students to become effective communicators and problem-solvers.

Research has shown that students with robust interpersonal skills tend to have better classroom participation, higher comprehension, and more streamlined communication. However, many students lack the motivation to learn these skills. To help them, schools should make the process engaging and relatable by offering hands-on activities and real-life examples.

To improve their interpersonal skills, students should try to understand other individuals’ backgrounds, interests, and foundations. They should also try to listen more than they speak and give others a chance to respond. Moreover, they should avoid using harsh language or insulting other people’s opinions. Besides, they should ask for constructive criticism from trusted friends or colleagues. They should also seek out mentorship from someone they respect and admire.


One of the key elements of successful education support is inclusion. Inclusion means that students with disabilities and nondisabled peers work and learn together, with appropriate accommodations and based on the same curriculum. This is a different model than that of segregation, where students are placed in separate classrooms.

Inclusion requires that teachers be trained in inclusive practices. This should be a part of preservice teacher training and also include opportunities to interact directly with students with disabilities in their own classrooms. This can help to build teachers’ comfort level with including children with disabilities in their own classes and promote a sense of community amongst their peers.

Additionally, inclusion can be a way for schools to better serve their entire student population, as it has been found that all students benefit from inclusion. This is especially true when teachers use Universal Design for Learning (UDL), which takes into account the primary brain networks that are responsible for how we learn.

What Is a School?

A school is an organized space designed for teaching and learning. It usually consists of classrooms, cafeterias or dining halls, and schoolyards. It may also have special laboratories or workshops for certain subjects.

When choosing a school, make sure you know the admissions process and any additional requirements, such as transcripts or letters of recommendation. Also, consider extracurricular activities and student publications.


Schools provide students with the skills they need to succeed in life. These skills include critical thinking, collaboration, and communication. In addition, they teach children how to respect diversity and different viewpoints. The school environment is also a place where students can develop their creativity.

Schools can also serve as places of cultural transmission, by teaching children about their own cultures and promoting a sense of tolerance. This is especially important as the world becomes more populated and connected.

Schools are a critical part of the educational system and can play a huge role in shaping the future of children. They can also encourage social and emotional development. To do so, they must provide students with a safe and supportive environment. In addition, they should offer counseling services for students who may have emotional problems. These services can be an invaluable tool in helping children deal with the stresses of everyday life. They can also help students build self-esteem and confidence.


Discipline refers to the set of rules and strategies schools use to manage students’ behavior. This includes both positive and negative approaches, ranging from restorative justice and Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) to expulsions and in-school suspensions. These policies often have unintended consequences and can be particularly harmful to students of color and those with disabilities.

Historically, society has vested school personnel with in loco parentis authority over children. Teachers assume parental duties and responsibilities, including discipline, on behalf of absent parents. As society has become more bureaucratized, however, these disciplinary practices have grown increasingly intrusive.

Social scientists have found that disciplinary policies are most effective when they communicate clear expectations, are consistently enforced, and involve rewards for compliance and punishments for violations. They are also more effective when they are applied by adults who are perceived as legitimate. In addition, they are most effective when they encourage cooperation and respect for others. Instilling discipline in students helps them to stay focused on their goals and work hard.


Many students see school as a competitive environment in which it is important to do better than others. However, this approach can lead to a lack of socialization and an insufficient understanding of the course materials. Teachers can encourage interaction among students by implementing interactive teaching techniques and allowing students to work together.

Some schools use interactive methods to teach students, such as service-learning, which combines academic learning with social responsibility. This type of teaching teaches students to respect and appreciate diversity and can help them connect with their communities.

Some research suggests that student-teacher interactions are important for effective learning. Students need to know that their opinions matter and that they will be listened to. They also need to feel safe asking questions and discussing their problems with the teacher. This type of student-teacher interaction builds trust and develops a student’s empathy skills. However, some schools resort to negative peacemaking or zero-tolerance policies that limit discussion.


With 3.2 billion players globally, videogames dominate the audio-visual sector far ahead of music and cinema. Educational games can be used to engage students by transforming boring lessons into exciting, engaging and fun learning experiences.

They provide immediate feedback, scaffolding (learning information in manageable sections or chunks), and multiple opportunities for practice. This allows students to retain knowledge, develop problem-solving and critical thinking skills, and gain confidence in their ability to succeed.

Teachers use educational games to promote learning of all ages and abilities. Many of these games can be tracked to provide personalised and accurate student assessment.

Games are also a great way to motivate students by providing them with rewards, a crucial factor in boosting learning and retention. For example, students can earn points or medals for their performance in a game which motivates them to keep playing. This is particularly effective in the case of educational games that require collaboration and teamwork.

5 Cognitive Goals For Kindergarten

When 5-year-olds start kindergarten they are often eager to learn new things. However, they are not ready to meet the cognitive goals that many kindergarten teachers set for them.

Founded on Froebel’s philosophy, kindergarten classrooms are usually structured to provide hands-on learning opportunities and socialization skills in a small group setting.


In kindergarten, children develop early literacy skills. They learn to recognize uppercase and lowercase letters and match them with their sounds, identify words that rhyme and use sight words, and retell stories in their own words. They also learn to express their thoughts and feelings using clear speech and participate in group discussions by following the rules of discussion (e.g., taking turns speaking and listening to others).

Children also learn to read a few simple books by themselves and explore the ways that print conveys information. They develop knowledge about different types of literature, including poetry, fiction, nonfiction (informational and expository), and drama.

When they are studying science, kindergarten students practice predicting the effects of natural processes and then observe, compare their predictions with what actually happens, and record their observations. They will use appropriate vocabulary to discuss these observations with their peers and teachers. These scientific discussions may be connected to Scientific Investigations standard K.S.4 of the Framework.


In kindergarten, children learn basic math concepts that will serve as a foundation for their learning in preschool, elementary school and beyond. These include number recognition, simple counting, number relationships, decomposing numbers and writing numbers. They also begin an introduction to geometry by recognizing 2D shapes like circles, rectangles, and squares.

Kindergarteners will also learn about measurement using comparison and non-standard units. They will understand the concept of time and money. They will also begin an introduction to addition and subtraction by understanding minus as “pulling apart” and adding as bringing together.

Parents can help their children develop these skills at home by playing math games that incorporate the use of different types of manipulatives. It is also important to encourage your child when they get a new concept right and praise them for their effort, even if the outcome is not perfect. It will build a positive attitude towards math that they can carry with them into their future academic career.

Social Studies

Social studies is a catch-all term for the subjects that center around man and his relationships, including history, geography, civics, economics, sociology, political science, anthropology and art. The kindergarten curriculum will expand children’s understanding of the world and their place in it by introducing them to important social themes such as family, classroom, school and community.

This early introduction to the social sciences teaches kids to work cooperatively with others and respect their differences. It also helps them develop a sense of their own culture and traditions.

Students in kindergarten will learn how to identify and address their own social issues by exploring what has been accomplished in the past through historical research and analysis of national symbols. They will also begin to understand the importance of civic engagement through discussions of current events, historical field trips, learning about how to vote and integrating their classroom with the local community. In addition to this, they will be encouraged to engage in community service projects.


Children are natural scientists, but they need structure to turn their curiosity and activity into scientific inquiry. Kindergarten science provides children with the opportunity to sort piles of objects, take things apart, experiment with materials and observe their surroundings. They will learn about the properties of various objects and materials such as color, shape, temperature, odor, flexibility and more. They will also discover the similarities and differences of plants and animals and their identifying characteristics.

They will experience the changes of the seasons and learn about what living things need to survive. They will also learn about the physics of motion by using toys such as helium balloons to demonstrate push and pull.

Sonlight Science K nurtures children’s natural curiosity as they read great books, learn new vocabulary and conduct weekly experiments. The experiments provide context to the classic scientific content that they are reading and help them develop real-life skills such as measuring, observation, hypothesis and problem solving.

Reading Intervention – What Are the Main Goals of Reading Intervention?

Reading intervention addresses the main areas that students need to develop to read well: phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary and comprehension. Students participate in individualized instruction at their instructional level in small groups.

Teachers use standardized assessments to monitor student progress and make informed decisions about who receives which reading interventions. This helps ensure that all students are getting effective and evidence-based instruction.


Children need to learn the sound-letter correspondence of the alphabet letters so they can sound out and read (decode) new words. This approach is most effective when it begins in kindergarten or first grade. It is most successful when students who are struggling with reading are taught phonics one-to-one or in small groups with trained teachers. Studies have shown that phonics interventions are effective, especially when they involve intensive support and review.

For older students, phonics allows them to tackle unfamiliar words in a way that is much faster than relying on memory or context. It also empowers them to use their decoding skills to break words into syllables and figure out the sounds in those syllables. These nonsense words allow students to practice this.

This reading intervention uses a direct tie to i-Ready Assessment to help educators identify their students needing extra practice in decoding and blending. Its clear teacher scripting and consistent routines makes it a great choice for interventionists, classroom teachers, paraprofessionals or tutors to deliver the right instruction for each student.


Reading fluency involves the ability to read quickly and accurately at a conversational pace, with appropriate prosody or expression. Students who lack reading fluency often make mistakes when reading, read too slow or miss important details in the text, and struggle with understanding what they have just read.

Research has found that many interventions can help students develop reading fluency. Oral rereading with feedback, passage previews, modelling and goal setting have all been found to be effective. Many studies have also shown that a repeated reading (RR) approach is highly effective for improving both the rate and accuracy of student reading.

The RR approach involves a teacher guiding students to practice reading short passages several times in a row while being monitored and corrected for accuracy and phrasing. This type of individualized instruction is particularly effective for students who need to improve their reading fluency. However, single-case studies examining the effect of fluency interventions on comprehension have used proximal measures of comprehension that do not always reflect true or complete comprehension.


To make sense of the words they read, students need a wide range of vocabulary knowledge. However, many students have underlying weaknesses in their word knowledge, making it difficult to understand grade-level text. Explicit intervention strategies for developing vocabulary and word learning skills are key for supporting comprehension in reading.

To support students’ learning of vocabulary, teachers must provide multiple opportunities for exposure and practice activities. This is critical because students often need 15-20 exposures to a new word in order to transfer it into long term memory.

Using explicit instructional routines to teach words, including morphology (roots and combining forms, prefixes and suffixes), supports vocabulary learning and retention. Teachers should also incorporate Tier 2 words into vocabulary instruction—these are the “bricks” that students will encounter across content areas and will help build a strong foundation for understanding texts.

Watch this video from Richard Capone, CEO and co-founder of Let’s Go Learn, as he provides insight on the connection between a student’s vocabulary knowledge and their reading comprehension and academic testing performance.


Students must be able to understand and interpret what they read. This is an important reading skill that often gets overlooked. It requires a wide range of skills, including sensory processing (e.g., hearing what’s being said), language skills, memory, and attention. Children with neurodevelopmental disabilities may find comprehension a more challenging skill to develop because of differences in how they process sensory information and use their language and memory.

Comprehension instruction should occur in conjunction with decoding and vocabulary instruction. Using a gradual release approach, Literacy How offers reading comprehension lessons to help all students reach the next level of understanding while still practicing their basic skills. Comprehension lessons include predicting, questioning, clarifying and summarizing to support all learning styles. They also include activities to build background knowledge, activate prior knowledge and teach text structure. These skills are essential to the success of all students in their ability to make sense of what they read.

The Importance of Early Childhood Education

Education is one of the best investments you can make in your children. It opens doors for them and helps them build a prosperous future.

Children’s cognitive (thinking) skills develop through play and exploration. They use their growing language and communication skills to learn more about the world around them.

Learning to Think for Yourself

Kids learn best when they’re able to think for themselves. This enables them to solve problems and navigate the real world. They can even use these skills in school, which is why ECE is so important.

Social development teaches kids how to get along with others and respect their differences. It also helps them develop self-control so they can manage their emotions and cope with frustrations.

UNESCO works with countries to ensure quality early childhood education and care (ECCE) for every child. This includes supporting ECCE as part of the education sector plan, using developmentally appropriate pedagogies, and fostering partnerships with sectors like health, nutrition, social services and community organisations.

Learning to Respect Others

In order to be successful in the classroom, kids need to know that others deserve respect. This skill helps them to learn and also allows them to work together.

Teaching children to respect each other promotes a diverse world and builds empathy. It also teaches children to stand up for themselves and their beliefs.

To teach children the definition of respect, ask them to discuss what it looks, sounds and feels like. You can use pre-made cards or make them yourself to help them examine different situations and determine whether they are respectful or not. Encourage them to share their ideas with a partner and then as a class.

Learning to Communicate

Communication is a critical part of children’s holistic development. It involves many different skills including listening, speaking, gesturing and reading and writing. It is influenced by both children’s cultural environment and their interactions with others.

Children are natural communicators who soak up the language around them. They enjoy sharing stories and ideas, playing games that help them develop their vocabularies and asking questions to learn more about their world. Research shows that responsive adult communication is essential to children’s learning and well being.

Learning to Respect Different Cultures

Children need to learn how to respect different cultures. This can help them overcome the problems associated with racial prejudice and prevent them from making stereotypical jokes about people who are different from them.

ECE programs encourage kids to participate in activities that are culturally sensitive. They can learn about other cultures through practical activities, such as sorting materials into things they can build with and things they can decorate with (classifying). They can also experiment and observe their surroundings to develop scientific mindsets.

Exposing children to different cultures early on can help them become familiar with their own. This can be done by talking to them about family traditions and allowing them to visit their ancestral homes.

Learning to Interact with Others

Children learn to interact with others through their daily experiences. For example, a child who plays with another child learns that they need to work together for the game to be successful. This is an important lesson because it will help them when they are older and are in a working environment.

The same is true for learning math concepts and science experiments. This is because research has shown that a child is more likely to be able to understand and remember information when they are interacting with it in person rather than being exposed to videos or recordings of it. In addition, the development of friendships will also contribute to their overall education because it will teach them how to interact with people.

Education Support

Education support includes custodial staff, food service workers and paraprofessionals, also called teacher’s aides. These school employees keep the day-to-day operation of schools running smoothly and help teachers make learning possible.

ESPs interact with students throughout the day and shape their experiences in minor and major ways. Treat these valuable school staff members with respect and create a culture of open sharing.

Guidance or Counseling Office

The guidance office is a crucial part of the educational environment. Guidance counselors are trained to assist students with a variety of matters, including academic planning, career development and personal/social growth. They also provide a range of consultation services for students, teachers and parents.

Individual counseling sessions are a significant part of the guidance program, as they are designed to help students get to know their counselors and identify their specific needs. Counselors also conduct group counseling, teacher advisement and peer programs.

In addition, guidance programs focus on identifying and remediating discriminatory practices against minority, women and handicapped students. These programs are implemented to meet civil rights statutory and regulatory requirements. These include analyzing course enrollment data, ensuring the inclusion of disadvantaged students and providing training workshops for counselors. The guidance office also provides on-campus resources to help students with problems such as bullying, drug and alcohol abuse and youth homelessness. They are able to point students in the direction of off-campus resources that may be available.

Language Assistance

Millions of New Yorkers speak a language other than English and may need interpretation services. MCPS uses temporary part-time interpreting staff to provide real-time face-to-face or over-video communication with patients, families and students who communicate in a non-English language.

Federal civil rights law requires agencies that receive federal financial assistance to take reasonable steps to ensure meaningful access to programs and activities for individuals with limited English proficiency. The 2000 HHS LEP Guidance outlines specific requirements.

To identify the need for language assistance, many jurisdictions have established effective data collection and analysis procedures. For example, some are using demographic information, collaborating with community organizations to monitor fluctuations in population, and making use of internal data such as invoices and expenditure reports. Others are using interpreters from language agencies to help meet the needs of individuals with limited English proficiency. These providers can be an economical and reliable source of translation or interpreting services. These providers often have a large pool of interpreters and translators to serve a variety of languages, allowing them to match the language needs of patients and their families with the appropriate services.

Library and Media Services

Students need to be able to access information in order to develop their critical thinking, communication and collaborative skills. A quality school library media program promotes student learning in dynamic social learning spaces. Certified school librarians co-teach information literacy and reading, support classroom instruction and provide a variety of resources in digital and print formats.

INFOhio is an online platform that allows teachers and students to access a database of eBooks. Click here to get a free account!

Library media programs offer welcoming, resource-rich environments that encourage multiple literacies and nurture a love of reading and an appreciation for cultural and aesthetic expression. They promote inquiry-based learning and foster intellectual integrity in making ethical judgments by promoting diverse perspectives, honoring the contributions of religious, social, cultural and ethnic groups and placing principle above personal opinion. They also provide access to a wide array of resources for students to use in research projects and other authentic learning experiences, with priority given to students working on course integrated media creation assignments.

Special Education

In North America, Special Education (sometimes abbreviated as Spec Ed or SpEd) focuses on helping kids with disabilities learn. It’s free under federal law, thanks to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1975.

Kids with disabilities may need help learning to read or understand math, or they might need extra speech and language services, short assignments or taped lessons. These supplementary aids and services are part of a child’s IEP, or Individualized Educational Program.

In the past, special needs kids were often segregated from the rest of the school population, but now most schools include kids with disabilities in classrooms with their peers. Some students need more specialized classrooms, though, and that’s where Special Education comes in. It also involves teachers who have received training on how to best support kids with disabilities. Those teachers are known as Special Education Instructional Specialists, or SIES.

The Importance of Schools

School gives students the chance to learn a wide variety of subjects. They also get the chance to explore their interests and develop their hobbies.

In schools, they’re around hundreds of people their own age. This socialization is helpful in helping them later in life to have a productive career and to be able to interact with people who are different than them.


Schools offer a variety of educational opportunities. From elementary school to high school, and from college to specialized schools like medical, law, and driving schools, people can gain a lot of important knowledge in school. But, more than that, schools also teach children the importance of being honest and humanitarian, which is a very important lesson in life.

Many people believe that education is very important, especially in a society that is becoming more and more complex. As a result, there is an increasing focus on the overall objectives, content, organization, and strategies of education. Consequently, curriculum studies have developed into a discipline.

Sometimes improving a school takes time, but it is always worth the effort. Positive reinforcement and keeping a history of progress are ways to keep school improvement on the forefront. These practices will help students learn to love learning. They will be able to take their experiences from school with them into their professional and private lives.


In addition to formal academic curricula, schools offer a hidden curriculum of socialization that shapes students’ perspectives and beliefs beyond explicit classroom teachings. Teachers and peers transmit messages through this ‘hidden curriculum’ on subjects such as punctuality, obedience, competition, and gender roles.

Students may also be offered opportunities to participate in extracurricular activities at school which can help them develop interpersonal skills and learn values like teamwork, leadership, time management and cooperation with others. This type of socialization is particularly important for those whose family or peer groups do not offer these opportunities and can be critical for helping them find acceptance in society as adults.

Along with schools, parents, peers and mass media all act as agents of socialization. Each has a different impact on individuals and researchers must simultaneously consider all of these factors when studying the effects of one factor. However, longitudinal designs able to track the interaction between these variables are most likely to yield meaningful results.

Extracurricular Activities

Extracurricular activities offer kids the opportunity to develop their talents and interests outside of school. They also allow kids to build skills that will be useful in future careers. For example, if a kid is passionate about art, he can join an arts group or volunteer at local museums. Moreover, these activities boost children’s self-esteem and help them find meaning in their lives.

In addition to enhancing their knowledge of academic subjects, extracurricular activities also teach kids leadership and teamwork skills. Besides, they also improve their communication and creativity. It is important to note that extracurricular activities shouldn’t add too much stress to children’s daily schedule.

Extracurricular activities play a crucial role in the admissions process at large public universities, but they don’t influence merit scholarship selection to the same degree as GPA and standardized test scores. In fact, most colleges prefer depth in a few areas over a laundry list of activities. Moreover, they tend to evaluate applicants in the context of their potential career path.


In schools, discipline offers a structure for maintaining order and supporting socialization. Misbehavior distracts students and teachers from their educational activities, and some behaviors, such as violence and theft, victimize the community. Discipline can also be used to teach students about the rules of a school culture and how to follow them.

In some cases, schools use discipline to address serious or dangerous behavior, such as armed robbery and assault. But more commonly, disciplinary action focuses on relatively minor offenses such as dress and hair code violations, talking in class, or truancy or tardiness.

These infractions are often addressed by means of a card system in which a student is given a yellow card when they have misbehaved, followed by a red one if their actions continue. However, many schools have policies that restrict the use of suspensions and rely on less harsh approaches such as restorative justice or Positive Behavioral Intervention and Supports. Students, parents, and school staff report differing experiences with discipline in their schools.

How to Help Your Kids Succeed in Kindergarten

Kindergarten is a time to develop social, emotional, language and thinking (cognitive) skills. It’s a big step for young children, and parents play an important role in helping kids succeed.

Kindergartners learn their letters and basic math concepts such as addition. Help them recognize and count numbers up to 30 and look for high-frequency words such as in, and, or.

Social and Emotional Development

For children to learn, they need to be able to interact with others and express their emotions in socially appropriate ways. If they are unable to use words and instead hit, kick, scream or throw things, they are less likely to have their needs met, whether with teachers or classmates.

Kindergarten is a time for children to start interacting regularly with other adults in a structured environment. For many children, this is their first experience spending a significant amount of time away from home.

In kindergarten, teachers help children build trusting relationships with peers and adults. They also teach and model appropriate social behaviors, such as taking turns, serving each other and respecting each other’s personal space. Some of these behaviors are taught at all levels, while other behaviors are introduced at the infant-toddler, Young Toddler and Older Toddler Standards and continue to develop through preschool and kindergarten. These skills are essential for school success and set the foundation for lifelong learning.

Language and Literacy Development

The development of language and literacy skills is a critical part of the kindergarten experience. While children develop emergent literacy skills — recognizing, writing and sounding out letters and words — at a varying pace depending on home environment and preschool instruction, the development of those skills is often highly predictive of future reading proficiency.

During the kindergarten year, children begin to use their knowledge of letter and word recognition to write their name and other common words and symbols. They also learn about sentence structure and punctuation, including the use of periods, question marks, and exclamation points.

To foster this growth, families should continue nightly shared reading and regular visits to the library. Research has shown that these practices help children view literacy experiences as enjoyable and motivating. This helps to ensure that reading will become an independent skill rather than a struggle. This will ultimately support their academic success in school and life.

Physical Development

At this age, children are able to use their larger muscles, such as those in their legs and arms, with greater control. They can also use the small muscles in their fingers and hands for activities such as drawing, painting and playing with clay. This helps them to create, sculpt and solve problems. It also enables them to do puzzles, draw circles, crosses and squares and use scissors with more accuracy.

Taking physical activity breaks throughout the day helps kids build healthy bones and muscles, focus better, feel less stress and sleep well. It can also help them to learn new things at a faster pace and to develop good friendships with their peers.

Supporting children and youth’s physical development is an important job for any educator or family member. Having a clear understanding of the typical developmental milestones for the ages your program serves, creating flexible physical development plans and providing plenty of indoor and outdoor play areas are essential steps to help kids reach their full potential.

Thinking (Cognitive) Development

The preschool years are a time of cognitive development when children begin to think logically in specific contexts and domains. They start to show centration of thought, where they focus their attention on one aspect of a situation or object, and they develop memory abilities. They also start to understand and follow multiple-step directions.

Russian researcher Lev Vygotsky believed that children’s cognition advanced through social interaction and problem solving with a More Knowledgeable Other (MKO). He called these interactions scaffolding. Scaffolding involved giving a child challenges that were just beyond their present level of skill, but not so challenging that they would be frustrated and give up. These challenges provided a “zone of proximal development” in which the child could progress with support from the MKO without becoming overwhelmed and having their frustration level rise.

Friedrich Wilhelm August Frobel, the founder of kindergarten, believed that children should be free to express their creative and productive natures. He called the classroom a garden and used toys that allowed children to sculpt clay, nurture plants or play with paper, string and other materials to stimulate creativity and ingenuity.

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