Month: September 2023

The Benefits of Early Childhood Education

children education

Education is much more than teaching kids their ABCs and 123s. It is about helping children learn to interact with others and develop a sense of self-worth. It also teaches them to make decisions for themselves.

Kids get their best learning from experiencing lots of different things. That’s why teachers try to offer a variety of activities for kids to try.

Early childhood education

Early childhood education is a fundamental aspect of children’s development. It helps prepare young children for later schooling and supports their social-emotional and cognitive growth. It also teaches them how to care for themselves and others. In addition, it can teach them how to work with other people and participate in community activities.

Research shows that children who are well-supported in their learning have a greater chance of success at school and as adults. This is particularly true for children from low-income backgrounds. This is because the effects of early education are far-reaching and long-lasting. It reduces disparities, boosts economic growth and inclusion, and contributes to reducing poverty and extreme poverty.

Educators should provide a curriculum that enables children to explore, learn, and develop their interests. They should also promote parental involvement through open communication, workshops, and home-based activities. This helps educators and parents understand each child’s individual needs and learning styles. They should also have ongoing training opportunities to ensure that they are up-to-date on the latest research in the field of early childhood education.

Pre-school education

Preschool education can improve cognitive abilities, school readiness, and academic achievement among participating children. Research also shows that ECE programs improve child health and socio-emotional outcomes. However, the quality of preschool programs varies widely. Teacher training and curricular enhancements can help to ensure that children receive the benefits of early childhood education.

In the 19th century, German educator Rudolph Steiner developed an educational approach based on his studies of human development. This approach, called Waldorf, emphasizes a holistic learning method and the belief that children have universal needs such as food, protection against danger, endurance for frustrations, work, play, and self-evaluation.

Although preschool is an important investment in a child’s life, the current system of funding fails to meet many children’s needs. In addition, expansion efforts without adequate safeguards can increase education inequalities. Instead, governments should invest in quality as systems grow and prioritize the most disadvantaged children. The results of this approach can have a long-lasting impact on future generations.

Kindergarten education

Kindergarten is a year-long program that prepares children for formal school education. It varies in length from half a day (morning or afternoon) to a full-day program. Children who attend kindergarten learn to play, interact, and communicate with other children and adults in a structured environment.

Kindergarten classes usually cover a wide range of subjects, including math, science, reading, and writing. Many kindergartens also offer art, music, and physical activity. During these lessons, kindergarten students can develop important skills that will help them succeed in school and in life.

There are six main areas of kindergarten learning: physical, social, emotional, language and literacy, and thinking (cognitive). Physical development is how children move their bodies and use their hands. Activities like playing outside, doing puzzles, and working with clay help children build these skills. Emotional development teaches children to understand their feelings and the feelings of others. Teachers support this development by helping children make friends and resolve disagreements.

High school education

In many states, high school is the second stage of formal education, after elementary education. It may be called junior high school, middle school, or secondary school. Some countries, however, have a single stage of primary and secondary education.

Students usually attend public school until they graduate from high school. Parents and teachers play a role in determining what classes their children will take. Traditionally, these include basic subjects such as English and math, foreign languages, music, and science. Some schools offer specialized courses such as coding and computer science.

Education is a state responsibility in most states, so the curriculum varies by state. Most states have standardized tests and require a student to pass grade-level classes in order to graduate from high school. Students who fail to meet the requirements may receive a certificate instead of a diploma. These certificates may have different names, such as Certificate of Completion or Certificate of Attendance. The No Child Left Behind Act requires all schools that receive federal funding to make Adequate Yearly Progress in standardized tests.

What Skills Do You Need For a Career in Education Support?

education support

Education support is a role that may suit people who have a passion for educating younger generations and seek a healthy work-life balance. Read on to learn more about what this career entails, how it differs from teaching, and the typical salary.

ESTs have diverse expertise and knowledge to develop student plans; know child development; understand educational trends; and help with classroom instruction.

Interpersonal skills

Interpersonal skills are important for any job, but they’re especially vital for education support roles. They include clear communication, teamwork, and emotional intelligence. While some people may be born with these skills, they can also be developed and practiced. Using them regularly can help you improve your interpersonal interactions and work more effectively in groups.

Developing your interpersonal skills requires patience and deliberate practice. You can start by asking trusted friends or colleagues for constructive criticism on how you interact with others. Another way to develop your skills is to observe positive interpersonal interactions.

Teachers need to have good interpersonal skills in order to make a class interesting and lively. They must be able to listen to students and parents in order to understand their problems. Moreover, students must also be able to communicate with their teacher and clear any doubts they might have. If a teacher just shouts in class and doesn’t receive any response, it is not a good communication.

Communication skills

Teaching students communication skills is essential for their academic and professional success. The skills are critical for social interaction, and help build trust with classmates and teachers. Teachers can teach these skills by modelling effective communication, integrating them into the curriculum, providing opportunities to practice, providing feedback, and fostering a supportive learning environment.

Effective communication is a two-way process that involves both sending and receiving information. It requires clear, concise language, active listening, respect and open-mindedness. In addition, it is important to understand how cultural differences can affect communication styles.

Communicating effectively is also important for collaboration and teamwork. For example, students need to communicate with their peers and teachers to discuss assignments, share ideas, and develop a productive group dynamic. This is especially important when working on a project that requires the collaboration of multiple people. This includes working in groups to complete a science lab report or history essay. It also helps to have strong interpersonal communication skills when requesting support from a teacher or tutor.

Learning support skills

A learning support teacher is an essential member of the classroom team. They are often responsible for preparing and delivering lessons, as well as providing individual support to students with special needs. They also need to be able to communicate with students, parents and teachers about student progress and classroom procedures.

Creative skills are important for learning support teachers to develop lesson plans, assignments and explanations that will engage students and keep them interested in the curriculum. These teaching methods are designed to promote student comprehension and success in all subjects.

They must also be able to identify signs of specific learning difficulties in students and refer them to the appropriate education specialist. Patience is a crucial skill that can help learning support teachers deal with the daily demands of their job. They will be working closely with each student and will get to know them far better than the other teachers in the classroom.

Observation skills

Observation skills involve using all of the senses to find out about the characteristics, properties and attributes of objects, places and events. These skills are essential for many jobs, and students should be encouraged to practice them as much as possible. They should also be given opportunities to use tools that extend their observation capacity. These can include microscopes, thermometers, rulers and balance scales.

Having good observation skills can help teachers to see the areas where their students lack communication skills. This way they can correct the problem at an early stage. It also helps them identify students who have a fear of speaking out loud or are shy.

Observation skills give real-time feedback and can be used to improve processes in a workplace. They also enable employees to notice subtle details about their colleagues, which can help them better understand each other and maneuver conflicts or challenges more tactfully. This will result in greater productivity and efficiency.

The Purposes of Schools


Schools provide students with a variety of options to suit their academic needs. For example, those who want to excel in their studies can find advanced classes.

Kids also learn to interact with others and develop a broader perspective through school. This is essential for a healthy society.

Without school, Americans would not be able to communicate with people from other backgrounds. School also enables social mobility, which is the ability to move up from a lower to a higher socioeconomic class.


People who promote the teaching of history as an essential part of schooling want students to gain a sense of identity that will help them become more responsible citizens. They also believe that the study of history will make them better able to learn other subjects.

At the beginning of the 20th century, state laws on the subject of schooling usually specified that history should be taught in schools. But the subject was seldom required in elementary schools, and it often was only taught in high schools.

Most adults who established and supported schools believed that, left to their own devices, children would not learn the lessons they (the adults) deemed important. They all viewed schooling as inculcation, the implanting of certain truths and ways of thinking into young minds. And the only known way to do this was by repetition and memorization of lessons. Punishments were considered intrinsic to the educational process. Often, children were beaten for their irresistible drive to play and explore the world on their own.


The school functions as a social institution in a number of ways. Sociologist Emile Durkheim characterized schools as socialization agencies that teach children to practice their future societal roles. Other manifest functions include building students’ intellectual abilities and teaching them the skills they will need to get a job.

Schools also serve to spread culture and tradition. They do this by passing on society’s values – such as the value of work, family and education – to new generations.

Moreover, schools encourage competition in students and help them develop their social networks. Students who are interested in similar activities often meet each other at schools and develop friendships and even romantic relationships. These types of social interactions are called latent functions, and they are the unintended consequences of schooling. These functions have important implications for how societies function. They include spreading the ideas of equality, and removing the societal bias that prevents a nation from growing.


Schools serve many purposes, including academic, social, vocational, and personal. These purposes can vary from country to country, but they all contribute to the development of individuals and societies. They also reflect the norms, beliefs, and power structures of a particular culture.

Schools should support students in learning about their own cultures and promote a sense of cultural tolerance. This will enable them to live in a more diverse world and to be more effective members of society.

Schools are an essential part of society, and their purpose is to give students the tools they need to become successful members of the community. They can help students develop a broad range of skills, and they can also teach them how to think critically and creatively. They can also help students find their passion and make them feel confident about themselves. This will allow them to succeed in the real world, and it will be a good foundation for their future careers.


A school’s location is a key selling point for students. Often, schools are in safe neighborhoods with parks and local law enforcement nearby. This provides a sense of security and safety for students, which is important for parents with young children.

However, living near a school can cause some nuisances. There are more people in the area, which can lead to traffic problems and a lack of parking spaces. There are also noises from bell schedules and fire drills, which can disturb neighbors.

This study used geographic information systems (GIS) to process data and perform analysis of school locations in West Java. The analysis was based on three primary aspects: disaster, comfort, and accessibility. The results of this model were compared with existing models to determine the optimal distribution of new schools. It is recommended that future research consider additional criterion and use better weights in calculating the suitability of new school sites. These factors would improve the accuracy and reliability of the model.

The Importance of Education for Children

children education

Education transforms lives and breaks the cycle of poverty that traps so many. But it cannot happen without access to quality schooling.

Teachers can help children develop cognitive, language and social skills. They can also teach them how to cooperate with others and resolve conflicts.

Teaching young children requires a high level of knowledge and skills. It can be one of the first times a child interacts with adults outside their family.

It helps to build strong children

Children need strong support from educators, parents and the community to thrive. They also need plenty of unstructured play, which helps balance the formal lessons at school. But they can’t learn well without a foundation of healthy relationships and experiences, which starts from birth.

Children begin to learn social and emotional skills early, including self-regulation of emotions, positive self-belief, and an ability to work cooperatively. Teachers help children develop these skills by setting high behavioral standards and modeling good behavior. They also foster a sense of belonging and self-worth in their students.

Providing quality education to all children yields significant medium- and long-term benefits. It breaks down the barriers that prevent many children, particularly those from disadvantaged families, from reaching minimum proficiency levels.

It helps to eradicate various social evils

Education is essential for the development of kids, as it helps them to develop their personality and get a stable income. It also helps to eradicate various social evils that exist in a country such as poverty, caste discrimination, child labour and more. This is why it is important for every kid to have access to quality education.

Children’s early childhood is a crucial period of their life, as it establishes the foundation for their moral outlook and perception of the world. It also gives them the basic skills they will use for their future career.

For children living in impoverished areas or communities impacted by conflict and natural disasters, education can be their only chance to invest in themselves and take control of their own lives. Unfortunately, many teachers are reluctant to report child abuse due to fear of affecting their relationships with students and their families or the negative impact on their career.

It helps to build self-confidence

Children need to build self-confidence so that they can try new things. They also need to know that they are loved, valued and capable. Educating kids about this can help them develop a positive outlook on life.

Low self-confidence can make a child feel like her goals and dreams are impossible to reach – or that she is unworthy of achieving them. Children with a high level of self-confidence can handle setbacks more easily and stay motivated.

To encourage kids to try new things, give them clear and attainable goals. Show them that they can succeed, and teach them to celebrate their accomplishments. If they fail, let them see how it can be a learning opportunity and move on. They also need to be given lots of love and cuddles to boost their confidence. This will help them to believe in themselves even if they don’t succeed on the first attempt. They will have the courage to try again and not be afraid of failure.

It helps to build a strong nation

Children who lack an education are less likely to reach their full potential as adults. They are more likely to suffer from bad health outcomes, and to be exposed to child marriage, exploitation and violence. They also have a lower chance of finding well-paying jobs and escaping poverty.

In poor countries, corruption and underfunding are often major impediments to quality education. Government officials may favor large-ticket projects like defense or road construction, which can offer more opportunities for kickbacks, over recurring expenditures such as teacher salaries and school supplies.

Another obstacle to education is the lack of access to technology and digital learning. This is especially true for children living in remote communities and those affected by conflict, natural disasters, or other emergencies. Education for children is a fundamental right. It is essential to help them build a strong nation and contribute to its development. The education system should provide a range of opportunities for children to develop to their full potential.

What Is Education Support?

education support

Education support is a broad range of educational strategies that may provide students with supplemental instruction, practice, and guidance. Schools often develop their own support programs to address a specific set of student needs.

Education support workers work in schools, office buildings and other workplaces. They include paraeducators, secretaries, custodians, and bus drivers.

Education Support Professionals

Education support professionals are the people who drive the buses, clean the buildings, prepare the meals, and bandage the scraped knees of students in public and private schools across America. They make up over 40 percent of a school’s staff, yet they often go unnoticed. That’s why National Education Support Professionals Day was made to celebrate them.

ESPs are the people who interact with every student at their school, and they can impact students in both minor and major ways. They help to build a positive learning environment and influence students’ learning journeys.

In this role, you may work with children who have emotional or behavioural challenges. This can require patience and empathy as you work with them to ensure they feel heard and understood. You’ll also need to communicate effectively with a range of other educational and non-educational staff. This includes teachers and leadership staff. To develop these skills, attend one of the ESP specific skill training workshops available on ZOOM.

Education Support Administrators

Education administrators manage or direct the administration, programs and services of a school or higher educational institution. They may also perform research and educational activities. The majority of jobs in this field are found at colleges, universities and junior or community colleges.

Education support administrators plan and develop educational standards and policies; oversee managers, assistant principals, guidance counselors, teachers, librarians, coaches and other personnel. They may also provide training, develop academic programs, administer career counseling and other student services, conduct research and prepare budgets.

Most education support administrators work full time during the school day and receive several weeks off for school and federal holidays. They generally report to the school principal or dean of students. They may assist teachers in creating education and lesson plans, educate students and the public about their job duties, and conduct classroom observations and make notes to improve teaching techniques. Some may also perform general office tasks such as filing and copying.

Education Support Specialists

ESPs are the heart of every school, keeping kids safe and supported so they can learn. Whether they are paraeducators, administrative assistants, custodians or bus drivers, they are the backbone of the school system.

They provide classroom support to teachers and students, create education and lesson plans, suggest teaching techniques to increase educational effectiveness, and more. Typically, they work full-time during the school year and take time off for school holidays. They report to the principal and other members of the school staff.

A successful education support specialist candidate possesses a bachelor’s degree and extensive knowledge of learning differences and strategies. They can also create supportive, trusting relationships with parents and teachers while fostering an environment that cultivates student success.

Education Support Teachers

Education support teachers work with students as part of a teaching team to provide learning and emotional support. They also assist with a range of general administrative tasks and can work on either a full-time or part-time basis depending on their needs and school arrangements.

These education support professionals are the backbone of our school systems. They keep kids safe, happy and engaged and give them the tools they need to thrive in their classes.

Children with disabilities and behavioural challenges often need additional assistance that teachers may not be able to provide while instructing a class. Education support officers are able to spend time in breakout rooms with individual children, offering them the support they need to manage their behaviours and learn.

When education support staff working in classroom support roles receive professional learning, coaching and feedback, they are able to better implement teacher and student-led learning interventions and improve the wellbeing of their students. Schools can use the KIS in these Guidelines to identify and prioritise actions within their School Strategic Plans and Annual Implementation Plans.

The Importance of Schools and the Pedagogy Pedagogy Network


A school is a place where children are educated. It is also a social environment where they learn to interact with other people. Schools provide opportunities for students to build long-lasting relationships with teachers and peers.

In addition, school teaches life skills that enable students to support themselves and economically contribute to society. It is a vital tool for increasing social mobility, allowing people to move from poverty to wealth and working-class to middle-class status.


School is where kids get a first taste of adulthood and the responsibilities that come with it. This is why it’s important for schools to teach students how to cope with stress, develop empathy and learn to work as part of a team.

Education also teaches kids how to think independently and solve problems. This helps them to become more successful adults when they leave school. Schools are also places where kids can meet people from different cultures and backgrounds, which builds their ability to interact with a wide range of people in the world beyond the walls of their school.

The field of curriculum studies aims to refine the overall objectives, content, organization and strategies of education. The “covert curriculum” describes the many features of a school culture beyond the subjects that are formally taught. This includes a school’s decor, rules and traditions as well as the student’s behavior. The study of these influences is important because they can shape the learning experience for students.


Schools play a critical role in the socialization of children. They help children learn the value of sharing, taking turns and respecting others’ feelings and boundaries. They also teach children how to interact positively with people from different backgrounds and cultures. This helps kids develop empathy and understand that everyone is unique and important. This is why it is important to enroll your kids in child care Greenville NC that provides the best quality of care and socialization.

Students must adapt to school-related social norms and behaviors that are distinct from those learned in their families. For example, they must adapt to a new schedule, different expectations for behaviour and the structural features of the school setting, which differ from those in their homes.

Additionally, the school environment should include a variety of experiences that lead to the student’s emotional, aesthetic and intellectual development. This includes the “hidden curriculum,” which transmits implicit messages about things such as punctuality, competition and gender roles.


Teachers collaborate in a variety of ways, from spontaneous connections over social media to more formal links via the Chartered College of Teaching. One example is WAT’s Pedagogy Champions group in IRIS Connect, where teachers share classroom clips to undertake practitioner-led research that leads to a shared understanding of effective practice and the evidence that supports it.

Collaboration is essential to sustain inclusive schools. No single educator can be expected to know how to meet the infinite presentations of learner variability. Consequently, it’s important to distribute problem-solving opportunities among general educators, special education teachers, and learning specialists.

For example, in a school with a multi-tiered system of supports, collaborative structures should include joint lesson planning and regular meetings between providers to discuss students who are struggling to master material or behave appropriately. In addition, collaboration should also extend to student support staff like related-service providers and paraprofessionals.


Educators use the term community in many ways, but it is often synonymous with a variety of stakeholders who have an interest in the school’s governance, operation or improvement. These include the administrators, teachers and students; informal groups such as parent-teacher associations or “booster clubs”; local residents and organizations; and charitable foundations and volunteer school-improvement committees.

Schools have a unique opportunity to help members of the community develop an understanding of their shared values and goals. This can be done by sharing information with a range of people through education software, which allows administrators to tailor content visibility for specific users and groups.

Another way to foster a sense of community is by partnering with different entities in the area, such as higher educational institutions or business professionals. This helps students see how their education can translate into the real world. It also gives them the chance to network and build relationships with these individuals.

What Kids Learn in Kindergarten


Kindergarten is the first formal year of schooling for most kids. Its curriculum varies widely across the country.

Parents can expect kindergartners to learn the alphabet and a handful of high-frequency words (also known as sight words). They also work on basic math skills. Education experts say even everyday activities can be major learning opportunities for kindergarten-age kids.


In kindergarten, children learn the names of letters and their sounds. They also begin to put letters together to form simple words and sentences.

Creating and acting out stories, dancing and making music help kids explore their imaginations. In a high-quality classroom, students might also create artwork in many forms and learn about different cultures through world language study.

Keep a box at home filled with creative waste materials like paper plates, wool pieces, old magazines and coloured licky sticky paper for kids to use at any time. This encourages imaginative play, which is so important for learning.


Children need to develop a positive view of math and learn that it’s a valuable part of their world. They also need to learn how to solve problems.

Math learning in kindergarten includes counting, recognizing and writing numbers, and understanding number families (i.e., 3-4; 5-7; 9-11). Kids also become familiar with 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional shapes.

Teachers of young children should understand how mathematical concepts are developed and learned. They should have the opportunity to share their content expertise and pedagogy with colleagues across schools. In addition, they need to have time and resources to engage in meaningful, engaging math learning experiences.


Science learning in kindergarten helps kids build on their natural curiosity. Young children are natural scientists who love to test out ideas, experiment, and learn by doing.

Kids learn to observe using all five of their senses as they use simple experiments such as watching snow melt or exploring why some objects float while others sink.

Kids practice communicating their discoveries to one another and their teacher through drawing pictures and speaking about what they’ve learned. This lays the foundation for higher level concepts they’ll be introduced to in later grades.

Social Studies

Social studies includes a number of different subjects, ranging from geography to history and anthropology to civics. These subjects share a common focus on human relationships, which is why the field of social studies encompasses a wide range of subject areas.

Kindergarten students begin learning about how their world works. They’ll find out about famous people from their nation’s past, including stories of courage and heroism. They’ll also learn about national holidays.

The Time4Learning curriculum provides a comprehensive social studies learning experience for students at every grade level. Students will develop their analytical skills as they explore topics such as:


Kindergarten students are adventurous and intuitive, which makes them a great group to try new art projects. They learn how to use the different media in art and they begin to see that artists observe, imagine and think.

They also become familiar with famous artists. For example, kids can make a painting inspired by Monet’s water lilies, or create patterned piggies.

This crumpled paper art project helps develop fine motor skills, but it’s also a fun sensory-feedback activity that can calm an unruly classroom. Similarly, this leaf print painting allows children to work with the different colors in a painting without requiring much skill.


Kindergarteners enjoy songs that ask them to sing along, use familiar words and melodies, and use rhythms. They may also enjoy nursery rhymes and fingerplays.

Music learning helps kids develop spatial-temporal skills, which are important in math and other subjects, writes Denise Fawcett Facey. Children develop these skills by listening to music, playing instruments and composing their own songs.

Try this fun clapping game to get students moving and have them guessing the rhythm of a song. It’s a great way to burn off some extra energy! It can be played with any number of participants.

Physical Education

In addition to cognitive learning, children learn about the world around them through physical activity. Getting students up and moving throughout the day allows them to release energy that would otherwise be contained inside their bodies. It also helps them to have a healthier mindset about their bodies and be more open to trying new things.

High quality physical education programs contribute to the development of physically literate individuals who have the knowledge and skills to enjoy a lifetime of physical activity. Students who have access to a high-quality physical education program in grades PreK-5 will have an increased sense of self-efficacy, social competence, and personal responsibility for physical health.

4 Types of Reading Intervention

Reading intervention

Reading intervention is the process of noticing students who struggle to read and providing them with extra support to help improve their skills. This can include specialized tutoring programs, structured reading programs outside of class time and more.

Poor readers with word recognition difficulties tend to over rely on textual cues and lack the ability to transform unknown words into sight words (Pressley, 1998). These students need explicit instruction.


PHonics is an intensive or targeted reading intervention that accelerates the basic skills of students who are below grade level. It is typically taught in addition to core classroom instruction, such as RTI Tier 2 or MTSS.

Research shows that students who struggle with reading benefit greatly from explicit phonics instruction. It is important to focus on the sound of each letter, as well as blending, vowels, and short and long syllables.

Many struggling readers rely on context and memory to read words, but they will need decoding skills to tackle unfamiliar words. Teaching students to break words into syllables and sounds helps them build the independence they need.

Using a systematic phonics program, such as Hooked on Phonics, can help kids become strong readers with confidence. This phonics intervention strategy allows teachers to focus on each child’s specific needs. The clear routines and scripting can also be easily taught by classroom teachers, paraprofessionals, or tutors, which makes it a great choice for reading intervention.


Vocabulary refers to the knowledge of the meanings of words. Research shows that reading comprehension improves when students have sufficient vocabulary knowledge. Vocabulary is also important for students learning English as a second language.

One of the most effective vocabulary strategies involves relying on context clues to help readers determine word meaning. These clues are words, phrases, or sentences that appear before, after, or close to an unfamiliar word in the text. Expository, nonfiction text tends to offer more context clues than narrative text.

In addition, researchers have found that children with rich vocabularies learn new words more efficiently than those with poor vocabularies. This gap widens over time, especially for children from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. This is why it is important to value and respect the linguistic diversity in schools, and provide instruction that builds students’ background knowledge and vocabulary.


Comprehension is the ability to interpret the meaning of what one has read. It involves an interactive process with text and requires the activation of prior knowledge, reading strategies and other strategic thought processes. It also involves an emotional component, including attitudes, feelings and values.

Teaching comprehension strategies involves providing students with practice activities that allow them to become skilled in the use of each strategy, so it is unconsciously selected and used when reading. This is called transfer of skill.

Students need to be motivated to use comprehension strategies in order to learn them, so it is important that teachers provide students with a variety of exciting texts and engaging topics that are relevant to their interests. In addition, it is necessary to incorporate open-ended questions and discussions before, during and after reading with students. This encourages metacognition, which is the ability to think about thinking. This helps students take control of their learning.


A student may struggle with fluency when they focus too much on decoding and neglect comprehension. Comprehension requires readers to hold a lot of details and contextual clues in memory while making connections and picking up on the gist, inference and main ideas of a reading. This can interfere with fluency as students struggle to keep up and have to backtrack to catch up.

To improve fluency, teachers can use several strategies. One effective method is pairing students who read at similar levels. The higher-performing student reads the passage first to provide a model for the lower-performing student and offers feedback on their errors. Another strategy is to time students during repeated readings and monitor progress over time.

In addition, students should practice reading aloud with attention to pacing and expression. This can be a challenging task for new students, so it is important to build confidence and create buy-in with explicit instruction. Students can also be encouraged to read to a metronome or other device that provides a consistent rhythm and pace.

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