Glossary terms and definitions
- Alphabetic Principle
The concept that our written language is a code for sounds; that letters and letter combinations represent sounds that make up words.b
Phonemic awareness ability to blend, or connect, sounds (phonemes) to hear a word
Blending develops over time with instruction; therefore, a child may be able to blend
3-sound words but not yet 4-sound words.
- Blending as you go
The phrase used by TRI teachers to scaffold a young reader's developing phonemic awareness and decoding ability. When a child is unable to blend sounds to hear a word (i.e., /m/ /o/ /p/), the teacher can model how to "blend as you go"--beginning with 2 sounds and gradually adding more and more sounds as the child's ability progresses.c
Understanding the written text.d
Using sound-symbol connections to attack unfamiliar words.e
Actively connecting to reading and reading-related tasks.f
Ability to read with developmentally appropriate rate, intonation, and phrasing.g
- Guided Oral Reading
Interactive reading aloud to, with, or by the child that happens from the very first lesson and grows in time to be the most important element of the TRI. During Guided Oral Reading, the teacher guides the student to flexibly orchestrate her word identification strategies, sight word knowledge, comprehension strategies, and knowledge of vocabulary and other background information.l
- Letter-Sound Knowledge
Ability of child to see a letter (i.e., "s") or letter combination (i.e., "sh") and identify its common sound (i.e., /s/ or /sh/, respectively).m
- More Advanced Phonics Knowledge
Ability of child to see an advanced letter combination (i.e., "oi" or "ow") and identify its common sounds (i.e., /oy/ and /ō/ or /ow/, respectively).
- More Sophisticated Word ID Strategies
Ability of child to read Multisyllable Words, or ability of child to see chunks in words, such as "ent" and to see affixes, such as "pre" and "tion."
The desire to read or to learn to read.o
- Other Word ID Strategies
Ability to draw from other strategies to identify unknown words, in addition to phonemic decoding.p
- Phonemic Awareness
Ability to discern individual phonemes (sounds) within words. Includes the ability to segmenting, blend, and manipulate phonemes.Synonyms: blending, phonemic manipulation, segmentingr
- Re-Reading for Fluency
Just like it sounds!s
The phonemic awareness ability to segment, or separate, each sound (phoneme) in a word.
- Sight Word Knowledge
Ability of child to automatically recognize, or identify, a word.t
- TRI Extensions
Activities throughout the rest of the school day that increase that student's exposure to print at a more fine-tuned instructional match.u
- Understanding Alphabetic Principle
The concept that our written language is a code for sounds; that letters and letter combinations represent sounds that make up words.v
Oral language knowledge of word meanings.w
- Word Identification
Ability to identify, or recognize, words in text; enabled mostly by Decoding ability and Sight Word Knowledge.
- Word Work
Multi-sensory strategies for manipulating, saying, and writing words and individual sounds in words.