Glossary

Glossary terms and definitions

a
Alphabetic Principle

The concept that our written language is a code for sounds; that letters and letter combinations represent sounds that make up words.

b
Blending

Phonemic awareness ability to blend, or connect, sounds (phonemes) to hear a word
Blending develops over time with instruction; therefore, a child may be able to blend
3-sound words but not yet 4-sound words.

Blending as you go

The phrase used by TRI teachers to scaffold a young reader's developing phonemic awareness and decoding ability. When a child is unable to blend sounds to hear a word (i.e., /m/ /o/ /p/), the teacher can model how to "blend as you go"--beginning with 2 sounds and gradually adding more and more sounds as the child's ability progresses.

c
Comprehension

Understanding the written text.

d
Decoding

Using sound-symbol connections to attack unfamiliar words.

e
Engagement

Actively connecting to reading and reading-related tasks.

f
Fluency

Ability to read with developmentally appropriate rate, intonation, and phrasing.

g
Guided Oral Reading

Interactive reading aloud to, with, or by the child that happens from the very first lesson and grows in time to be the most important element of the TRI. During Guided Oral Reading, the teacher guides the student to flexibly orchestrate her word identification strategies, sight word knowledge, comprehension strategies, and knowledge of vocabulary and other background information.

l
Letter-Sound Knowledge

Ability of child to see a letter (i.e., "s") or letter combination (i.e., "sh") and identify its common sound (i.e., /s/ or /sh/, respectively).

m
More Advanced Phonics Knowledge

Ability of child to see an advanced letter combination (i.e., "oi" or "ow") and identify its common sounds (i.e., /oy/ and /ō/ or /ow/, respectively).

More Sophisticated Word ID Strategies

Ability of child to read Multisyllable Words, or ability of child to see chunks in words, such as "ent" and to see affixes, such as "pre" and "tion."

Motivation

The desire to read or to learn to read.

o
Other Word ID Strategies

Ability to draw from other strategies to identify unknown words, in addition to phonemic decoding.

p
Phonemic Awareness

Ability to discern individual phonemes (sounds) within words. Includes the ability to segmenting, blend, and manipulate phonemes.

Synonyms: blending, phonemic manipulation, segmenting
r
Re-Reading for Fluency

Just like it sounds!

s
Segmenting

The phonemic awareness ability to segment, or separate, each sound (phoneme) in a word.

Sight Word Knowledge

Ability of child to automatically recognize, or identify, a word.

t
TRI Extensions

Activities throughout the rest of the school day that increase that student's exposure to print at a more fine-tuned instructional match.

u
Understanding Alphabetic Principle

The concept that our written language is a code for sounds; that letters and letter combinations represent sounds that make up words.

v
Vocabulary

Oral language knowledge of word meanings.

w
Word Identification

Ability to identify, or recognize, words in text; enabled mostly by Decoding ability and Sight Word Knowledge.

Word Work

Multi-sensory strategies for manipulating, saying, and writing words and individual sounds in words.